Import product diversification and renewable energy: a new appraisal from developed and developing countries

Buhari Doğan, Magdalena Radulescu, Umer Shahzad*, Behnaz Saboori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the role of the import diversification in the renewable energy consumption for a global panel of both developing and developed economies. The study applies panel co-integration and panel quantile regression analysis on the panel data of 138 countries during 1995–2018. For empirical analysis, the authors used Pedroni) cointegration test and panel-quantile regressions. The investigation proves that the import diversification significantly reduces the renewable energy consumption and there is a major need for designing and implementing some revised and synchronized policies of trade with the energy mix and sustainable development goals. The empirical findings claim that the foreign direct investments, natural resources and GDP increase significantly boost the renewable energy demand for both groups of developing and developed countries. Therefore, this study shows that generally the current trade policies might be ineffective and import diversification policies should be reformed to match with the energy regulations, manufacturing, and sustainable development goals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2038733
JournalEnergy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Import product diversification
  • developed countries
  • developing countries
  • panel co-integration analysis
  • panel quantile regression
  • renewable energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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