Impact of climate change on wheat grain composition and quality

Noreen Zahra, Muhammad Bilal Hafeez, Abdul Wahid, Muna Hamed Al Masruri, Aman Ullah, Kadambot H.M. Siddique, Muhammad Farooq*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Wheat grain quality, an important determinant for human nutrition, is often overlooked when improving crop production for stressed environments. Climate change makes this task more difficult by imposing combined stresses. The scenarios relevant to climate change include elevated CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) and extreme climatic events such as drought, heat waves, and salinity stresses. However, data on wheat quality in terms of climate change are limited, with no concerted efforts at the global level to provide an equitable and consistent climate risk assessment for wheat grain quality. Climate change induces changes in the quality and composition of wheat grain, a premier staple food crop globally. Climate-change events, such as eCO 2 , heat, drought, salinity stress stresses, heat + drought, eCO 2  + drought, and eCO 2  + heat stresses, alter wheat grain quality in terms of grain weight, nutrient, anti-nutrient, fiber, and protein content and composition, starch granules, and free amino acid composition. Interestingly, in comparison with other stresses, heat stress and drought stress increase phytate content, which restricts the bioavailability of essential mineral elements. All climatic events, except for eCO 2  + heat stress, increase grain gliadin content in different wheat varieties. However, grain quality components depend more on inter-varietal difference, stress type, and exposure time and intensity. The climatic events show differential regulation of protein and starch accumulation, and mineral metabolism in wheat grains. Rapid climate shifting impairs wheat productivity and causes grain quality to deteriorate by interrupting the allocation of essential nutrients and photoassimilates. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2745-2751
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 7 2022


  • abiotic stresses
  • climate change
  • grain composition
  • grain quality
  • wheat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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