Heavy metal contamination from treated sewage effluents

S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud, S. N. Al-Bahry

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

9 Citations (Scopus)


Excessive exposure of heavy metals is known to have deleterious effects on health and has been shown to cause various diseases. The determination of heavy metals in sewage is important for monitoring environmental pollution caused by treated sewage effluents (TSE). Rare rainfall in Oman and lack of fresh water has led the authorities to recycle sewage effluents. However, the environmental impact related to heavy metals in sewage effluents is a serious health issue. Three sewage treatment plants (STPs) were used in this study. Water and sewage samples were analyzed for heavy metals; Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, NI, Pb, V and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) type Perkin Elmer 3300 DV ICP. Heavy metal concentration in the three STPs varied significantly and it was in correlation with heavy metals in sludge and soil irrigated with TSE. STPs used in industrial areas had higher concentration of heavy metals compared to STPs from residential communities, hospitals, and public institutions. In general, the highest concentration among the heavy metals from sludge was Pb, Hg, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cd. The results of this investigation indicates that there is a potential threat reusing recycled water and sludge which can infiltrate livestock, wildlife which impose the risk of spreading human diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWater Pollution XI
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9781845646080
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Event11th International Conference on Water Pollution: Modelling, Monitoring and Management - Water Pollution XI, WP 2012 - New Forest, United Kingdom
Duration: Jul 10 2012Jul 12 2012


Other11th International Conference on Water Pollution: Modelling, Monitoring and Management - Water Pollution XI, WP 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
CityNew Forest


  • Contamination
  • Heavy metals
  • Sludge
  • Treated sewage effluent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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