Gross age-related changes and diseases in human heart valves

Treerat Gumpangseth, Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh*, Srijit Das

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiac valves are highly complex structures optimizing their function during the cardiac cycle. They open and close directed by blood flow under different pressure conditions in the dynamic environment in the heart. It is acknowledged that the aging process affects the structure and functions of the heart valves. With regard to morphometry, age-related changes of the heart valve can be found in valve circumference, thickness of the leaflet, luminal area at the sinotubular junction, valve diameter, orifice area, and leaflet size in circumferential and radial direction. In addition, there are differences between male and female hearts in some features. Moreover, there are studies the qualitative and quantitative assessment of histological compositions, echocardiography study to investigate the annular circumference and diameter in the human heart valves related with age. Studies into the detailed anatomy of the changes in heart valves with age are important and the correlation between valve morphology and age may be used as an age indicator. This study reviews the basic anatomical structure of the heart valves, age-related changes of valve morphometry, heart valve diseases, and general treatment of valvular diseases in humans. Detailed knowledge of the anatomical features of the morphology of the human heart valve is useful for any treatments of valve pathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-33
Number of pages9
JournalAnatomy and Cell Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2019


  • Age changes
  • Aortic valve
  • Mitral valve
  • Pulmonary valve
  • Tricuspid valve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Histology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology


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