Gamma radiolytic decomposition of endosulfan in aerated solution: the role of carbonate radical

Noor S. Shah*, Javed Ali Khan, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Murtaza Sayed, Hasan M. Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The present study elaborates the removal of endosulfan, an emerging water pollutant and potential carcinogenic, in aerated solution. The influence of Cl, NO3 , NO2 , CO3 2−, HCO3 , SO3 2−, and humic acid was assessed on the radiolytic degradation of endosulfan. A strong inhibition on the radiolytic degradation of endosulfan was observed in the presence of NO3 , NO2 , and SO3 2−. Instead, a slight increase in the removal efficiency of endosulfan was observed at high concentrations of CO3 2− and HCO3 . The formation of CO3 •− in radiolytic degradation of endosulfan in the presence of CO3 2− and HCO3 was demonstrated by adding SO3 2− that rapidly react with CO3 •−. The results indicate that CO3 •− formed from the reactions of CO3 2− and HCO3 and commonly found in natural water can play an important role in the degradation of endosulfan and other sulfur containing electron-rich compounds. The study showed faster degradation of endosulfan at lower concentration compared to high concentration and removal was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetic. Endosulfan ether was found as the main degradation product and degradation pathway was found to be initiated at the S=O bond of endosulfan. The efficiency of gamma irradiation in the removal of endosulfan was examined in terms of formation of short chain organic acids and chloride ion accumulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Mar 16 2016


  • AOPs
  • Carbonate radical
  • Endosulfan
  • Gamma irradiation
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pollution


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