Freezing-melting process and desalination: I. review of the state-of-the-art

Mohammad Shafiur Rahman*, Mushtaque Ahmed, X. Dong Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)


A thorough literature survey was conducted on the freezing-melting (FM) process for desalination. Collected literatures were studied and analyzed to identify the current state-of-the-art of the FM process, and its practical limitations. The main advantages of the FM process are the requirement of low energy and low temperature operation compared to thermal desalination. Other advantages are less scaling or fouling and fewer corrosion problems, ability to use inexpensive plastics or low-cost material, and absence of pretreatment. The three broad classes of FM process are: direct contact freezing, indirect contact freezing, and vacuum freezing. Different types of processing options in each class are discussed with their operating principles and merits and downsides of each process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-96
Number of pages38
JournalSeparation and Purification Reviews
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2006


  • Desalination
  • Direct contact freezing
  • Eutectic freezing
  • FM
  • Freezing-melting
  • Indirect contact freezing
  • Vacuum freezing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Filtration and Separation


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