Forced convection of Al2O3, Fe3O4, ND-Fe3O4, and (MWCNT-Fe3O4) mixtures in rectangular channels: Experimental and numerical results

M. Ziad Saghir*, Mohammad M. Rahman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Due to the growing needs of super coolant for industrial applications, in this article, we investigate experimentally as well as numerically the possible best heat transfer fluid. In this respect, we considered three nanofluids mixtures of Al2O3/water (concentrations of 0.2%vol and 0.3%vol) and 0.2%vol Fe3O4/water and 0.2%vol ND-Fe3O4/water, and a hybrid fluid of 0.3%vol MWCNT-Fe3O4 in water. First, we experiment with forced convection in three porous channels using two concentrations of 0.2 and 0.3%vol of Al2O3 nanofluid, respectively. We validated the experimental results with the numerically simulated data and confirmed satisfactory agreement among them. Second, using the numerical code, we predicted the performance of 0.2%vol Fe3O4 nanofluid, 0.2%vol (ND-Fe3O4) nanofluid, and a hybrid fluid of 0.3%vol (MWCNT(26%)-Fe3O4(74%)) for heat extraction. With such configuration, the usefulness of using the proposed nanofluid and hybrid fluid enlarge the knowledge for heat enhancement. Our experimental results show that 0.2%vol Al2O3 efficiently transfers heat compared to the 0.3%vol Al2O3. The simulated results show that 0.2%vol Fe3O4 nanofluid is the best fluid for heat extraction among the experimentally and numerically studied fluids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10002-10019
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Jun 25 2022


  • forced convection
  • friction coefficient
  • hybrid fluid
  • nanofluid
  • thermal enhancement
  • three channels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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