Expanding the phenome and variome of skeletal dysplasia

Sateesh Maddirevula, Saud Alsahli, Lamees Alhabeeb, Nisha Patel, Fatema Alzahrani, Hanan E. Shamseldin, Shams Anazi, Nour Ewida, Hessa S. Alsaif, Jawahir Y. Mohamed, Anas M. Alazami, Niema Ibrahim, Firdous Abdulwahab, Mais Hashem, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Dorota Monies, Nada Al Tassan, Muneera Alshammari, Afaf Alsagheir, Mohammed Zain SeidahmedSamira Sogati, Mona S. Aglan, Muddathir H. Hamad, Mustafa A. Salih, Ahlam A. Hamed, Nadia Alhashmi, Amira Nabil, Fatima Alfadli, Ghada M.H. Abdel-Salam, Hisham Alkuraya, Winnie Ong Peitee, W. T. Keng, Abdullah Qasem, Aziza M. Mushiba, Maha S. Zaki, Mahmoud R. Fassad, Majid Alfadhel, Saji Alexander, Yasser Sabr, Samia Temtamy, Alka V. Ekbote, Samira Ismail, Gamal Ahmed Hosny, Ghada A. Otaify, Khalda Amr, Saeed Al Tala, Arif O. Khan, Tamer Rizk, Aida Alaqeel, Abdulmonem Alsiddiky, Ankur Singh, Seema Kapoor, Amal Alhashem, Eissa Faqeih, Ranad Shaheen*, Fowzan S. Alkuraya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To describe our experience with a large cohort (411 patients from 288 families) of various forms of skeletal dysplasia who were molecularly characterized. Methods: Detailed phenotyping and next-generation sequencing (panel and exome). Results: Our analysis revealed 224 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (54 (24%) of which are novel) in 123 genes with established or tentative links to skeletal dysplasia. In addition, we propose 5 genes as candidate disease genes with suggestive biological links (WNT3A, SUCO, RIN1, DIP2C, and PAN2). Phenotypically, we note that our cohort spans 36 established phenotypic categories by the International Skeletal Dysplasia Nosology, as well as 18 novel skeletal dysplasia phenotypes that could not be classified under these categories, e.g., the novel C3orf17-related skeletal dysplasia. We also describe novel phenotypic aspects of well-known disease genes, e.g., PGAP3-related Toriello–Carey syndrome–like phenotype. We note a strong founder effect for many genes in our cohort, which allowed us to calculate a minimum disease burden for the autosomal recessive forms of skeletal dysplasia in our population (7.16E-04), which is much higher than the global average. Conclusion: By expanding the phenotypic, allelic, and locus heterogeneity of skeletal dysplasia in humans, we hope our study will improve the diagnostic rate of patients with these conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1609-1616
Number of pages8
JournalGenetics in Medicine
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Toriello–Carey
  • craniosynostosis
  • osteogenesis imperfecta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)

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