Evaluation of synthesized green carbon catalyst from waste date pits for tertiary butylation of phenol

Farrukh Jamil, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb*, Mu Naushad, Mahad Baawain, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


The present study is intended to adopt a facile method for preparing a sulphonated green carbon catalyst from date pits biomass. Catalyst synthesis involves in situ carbonization and sulphonation and it has been characterized by following techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, FTIR, TGA, and BET. Surface and internal morphology results exhibited that the synthesized sulphonated carbon material possesses a mesoporous structure, while activated carbon possesses a microporous structure. Furthermore, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the presence of acidic groups ([sbnd]OH, [sbnd]COOH, and [sbnd]SO3H) in synthesized sulphonated carbon material. Sulphonated carbon material exhibited high acidity (4.7 mmol/g) and good thermal stability. The application of this catalyst for the tertiary butylation of phenol without using any solvent has been investigated. The phenol alkylation reaction showed maximum conversion at reaction condition: temperature (140 °C) with 2 bar (nitrogen gas) pressure with maximum phenol conversion 79.27 wt%, with 68.01% selectivity towards 4TBP+2,4TBP, which is used as an intermediate in antioxidants. The catalyst exhibits comparable catalytic performance up to five reaction cycles. Thus it can be concluded that waste date pits can be successfully employed for green catalyst synthesis and used for reactions involving large molecules.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-307
Number of pages10
JournalArabian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


  • Butylation
  • Carbonization
  • Phenol
  • Sulphonation
  • Waste date seeds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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