CTL are important effectors of antiviral immunity. Designing adjuvants that can induce strong cytotoxic T cell responses in humans would greatly improve the effectiveness of an antiviral vaccination or therapeutic strategy. Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to its well-established role in costimulation of CD4 T cell responses, OX40L (CD134) can directly costimulate mouse CD8 T cells. In this study, we evaluated the role of OX40L in costimulation of human antiviral CD8 T cell responses and compared it with two other important costimulators, B7.1 (CD80) and 4-1BBL (CD137L). Delivery of OX40L to human monocytes using a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus led to greater expansion, up-regulation of perforin, enhanced cytolytic activity, and increased numbers of IFN-γ-and TNF-α-producing antiviral memory CD8 T cells in cultures of total T eels. Synergistic or additive effects were observed when OX40L costimulation was combined with 4-1BBL (CD137L) or B7.1 (CD80) costimulation. In total T cell cultures, at low Ag dose, 4-1BBL provided the most potent costimulus for influenza-specific CD8 T cell expansion, followed by B7.1 (CD80) and then OX40L. For isolated CD8 T cells, 4-1BBL was also the most consistent costimulator, followed by B7.1. In contrast, OX40L showed efficacy in direct activation of memory CD8 T cells in only one of seven donors. Thus, OX40L costimulates human antiviral memory CD8 T cell responses largely through indirect effects and can enhance anti-influenza, anti-EBV, and anti-HIV responses, particularly in combination with 4-1BBL or B7.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy