Estimating the impacts of non-tariff measures in the Indian ocean rim association

Abdallah Akintola, Houcine Boughanmi, Alessandro Antimiani, Lokman Zaibet, Hemesiri Kotagama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In recent years, the Indian Ocean Rim Association has witnessed an increasing trend in the use of non-tariff measures (NTMs). This study evaluated the impact of NTMs in the Indian Ocean Rim Association through estimations of their ad valorem equivalents at the HS chapter and country levels. A gravity model using NTM count data (intensity) was specified and estimated to derive the importer-specific ad valorem equivalents for the four (4) most used NTMs in the region. The results showed the presence of both import-impeding and import-promoting effects of NTMs; however, the import-impeding effects dominated in the region. The quantitative restriction and safeguard measures were more restrictive compared to the sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade. This was expected since quantitative restrictions are trade-distorting by design. This calls for reforming trade policy in the region toward NTMs that are more transparent and trade enhancing for successful subsequent trade negotiations in the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which would support the sustainable economic development of the region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number68
Pages (from-to)68
Number of pages1
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 22 2021


  • Ad valorem equivalent
  • Gravity model
  • IORA
  • Non-tariff measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Building and Construction
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Dive into the research topics of 'Estimating the impacts of non-tariff measures in the Indian ocean rim association'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this