Establishing a Data Fusion Water Resources Risk Map Based on Aggregating Drinking Water Quality and Human Health Risk Indices

Ata Allah Nadiri*, Zahra Sedghi, Rahim Barzegar, Mohammad Reza Nikoo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) and the Human Health Risk Index (HHRI) are two of the most promising tools for assessing the health impact of water quality on humans. Each of these indices has its own ability to determine a specific level of safety for drinking, and their results may vary. This study aims to develop an aggregated index to identify vulnerable areas in relation to safe drinking water and, subsequently, risk areas for human health, particularly non-cancerous diseases, in the Maku–Bazargan–Poldasht area in NW Iran through the use of a data fusion technique. Nitrate (NO3) and fluoride (F) are the predominant contaminants that threaten the local population’s health. The DWQI revealed that the majority of the study sites had poor to improper quality for drinking water class. Health risk assessments showed an excessive potential for non-carcinogenic health risks because of high NO3 and F exposure through drinking water. Children are at a higher risk for non-carcinogenic changes than adults, according to the total hazard index (THI; NO3 and F), suggesting that locals have faced a lifetime risk of non-cancer changes as a consequence of their exposure to these pollutants. Using data fusion techniques can assist in developing a comprehensive water resources risk map for decision-making.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3390
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Oct 26 2022


  • data fusion
  • drinking water quality index
  • human health risk assessment
  • non-carcinogenic
  • water resources risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Biochemistry
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology

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