Epidemiological risk factors for acquiring severe covid-19: Prospective cohort study

Salah T. Al Awaidy, Faryal Khamis*, Ozayr Mahomed, Ronald Wesonga, Muna Al Shuabi, Nadiya Salim Al Shabibi, Dalal Salim Al Dhahli, Jaleela Al Noumani, Asila Mohammed Alhadidi, Majda Al Wahebi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: We aimed to determine epidemiological risk factors associated with acquiring severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients requiring hospitalization. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted using a questionnaire comprised of six closed-ended questions to identify potential risk factors for severe COVID-19. Using COVID-19 associated illnesses and complications (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, acute kidney failure, cardiac failure, and thromboembolic events), we derived an index variable to measure the severity of COVID-19 in patients. Results: We included 143 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 of whom 62.2% (n = 89) were male and 37.8% (n = 54) were female. The average age of the cohort was 50.6±16.5 years. Our study found that being a female, working at the health care facility, being a healthcare worker, attending a mass gathering within the last 14 days, attending a gathering with 10 persons or less, and being admitted to a hospital were associated with increased risk of developing severe COVID-19. The only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 was working at a health care facility (odds ratio = 33.42, p = 0.029). Conclusions: Intervention directed to control risk factors associated with acquiring severe COVID-19 should be a core priority for all countries, especially among high-risk occupations and workplaces, including working at a health care facility. A risk-based approach to prioritize vaccination among these high-risk individuals should be supported to strengthen the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere301
JournalOman Medical Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • COVID-19
  • Health Facilities
  • Hospitalization
  • Hospitals
  • Oman
  • Risk Factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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