Environmentally azithromycin pharmaceutical wastewater management and synergetic biocompatible approaches of loaded azithromycin@hematite nanoparticles

Mostafa F. Al-Hakkani*, Gamal A. Gouda, Sedky H.A. Hassan, Mahmoud M.A. Mohamed, Adham M. Nagiub

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Pharmaceutical wastewater contamination via azithromycin antibiotic and the continuous emergence of some strains of bacteria, cancer, and the Covid-19 virus. Azithromycin wastewater treatment using the biosynthesized Hematite nanoparticles (α-HNPs) and the biocompatible activities of the resulted nanosystem were reported. Biofabrication of α-HNPs using Echinaceapurpurea liquid extract as a previously reported approach was implemented. An evaluation of the adsorption technique via the biofabricated α-HNPs for the removal of the Azr drug contaminant from the pharmaceutical wastewater was conducted. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic parameters of the Azr on the α-HNPs surface have been investigated as a batch mode of equilibrium experiments. Antibacterial, anticancer, and antiviral activities were conducted as Azr@α-HNPs. The optimum conditions for the adsorption study were conducted as solution pH = 10, 150 mg dose of α-HNPs, and Azr concentration 400 mg/L at 293 K. The most fitted isothermal model was described according to the Langmuir model at adsorption capacity 114.05 mg/g in a pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanistic at R2 0.9999. Thermodynamic study manifested that the adsorption behavior is a spontaneous endothermic chemisorption process. Subsequently, studying the biocompatible applications of the Azr@α-HNPs. Azr@α-HNPs antibacterial activity revealed a synergistic effect in the case of Gram-positive more than Gram-negative bacteria. IC50 of Azr@α-HNPs cytotoxicity against MCF7, HepG2, and HCT116 cell lines was investigated and it was found to be 78.1, 81.7, and 93.4 µg/mL respectively. As the first investigation of the antiviral use of Azr@α-HNPs against SARS-CoV-2, it was achieved a safety therapeutic index equal to 25.4 revealing a promising antiviral activity. An admirable impact of the use of the biosynthesized α-HNPs and its removal nanosystem product Azr@α-HNPs was manifested and it may be used soon as a platform of the drug delivery nanosystem for the biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10970
Pages (from-to)10970
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 29 2022


  • Adsorption
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Azithromycin/pharmacology
  • COVID-19 Drug Treatment
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kinetics
  • Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Thermodynamics
  • Wastewater
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'Environmentally azithromycin pharmaceutical wastewater management and synergetic biocompatible approaches of loaded azithromycin@hematite nanoparticles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this