Entropy generation in hydromagnetic nanofluids flow inside a tilted square enclosure under local thermal nonequilibrium condition

K.S. Al-Kalbani, M.M. Rahman, M.Z. Saghir

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40 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the entropy generations due to the multiple factors such as base fluid, nanoparticles, viscosity, and the inclined magnetic field for the convective flow of nanofluids inside a titled square enclosure considering local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) condition. One of the walls of the enclosure is kept heated changing its position such as (a) bottom, (b) near, (c) top, and (d) vertical while the corresponding opposite wall is kept cold. The other two walls are reserved insulated. The dimensionless constituting equations of the physical model are simulated numerically using FEM (finite element method). The numerically simulated data are matched with the data available in the open literature and noticed excellent agreement among them. The results indicate that nanoparticle loading and the Nield number strongly control the LTNE conditions among the regular fluid and nanoparticles. The Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers intensely control the system irreversibility while the magnetic field leaning angle acts slightly on it. We identified that fluid friction mainly contributes to the total entropy generation. The system produced maximum entropy for a bottom heated wall whereas the minimum entropy for the top heated wall. The entropy generated due to heat transfer dominates the frictional entropy only for the top heated wall.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100031
Pages (from-to)100031
JournalInternational Journal of Thermofluids
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


  • Convection
  • Entropy generation
  • Inclined square enclosure
  • LTNE condition
  • Nanofluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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