Enhancing the Catalytic Activity of Eggshell-Derived CaO Catalyst and Its Application in Biodiesel Production from Waste Chicken Fat

Muhammad Saleem, Farrukh Jamil*, Obaid Ali Qamar, Parveen Akhter, Murid Hussain*, Muhammad Shahzad Khurram, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Abrar Inayat, Noor Samad Shah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The comparatively greater cost of producing biodiesel in comparison to petroleum diesel is one of the key drawbacks. Eggshells and leftover chicken fat are examples of poultry wastes that can be used to produce biodiesel at a low cost as catalysts and oil, respectively. In this study, eggshell-derived CaO and its doping with sodium methoxide catalyst for enhancing catalytic activity was synthesized for the transesterification of waste chicken fat and characterized by FT-IR and XRD analyses. XRD studies confirmed the crystalline structure of the developed catalyst and doping of sodium with eggshell-derived CaO. The transesterification reaction was performed at different reaction parameters such as the catalyst loading, the methanol to oil ratio, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The biodiesel produced at the maximum yield was evaluated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A maximum yield of 96% biodiesel was obtained with catalyst loading of 2 wt% of oil, as well as a methanol to oil ratio of 13:1 at 60 °C in 1 h. The output demonstrates that eggshell waste is a potentially accessible source of biomass-derived nano catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel using chicken fat as a feedstock.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1627
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 12 2022


  • biofuel
  • catalysts
  • eggshells
  • renewable
  • sustainable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Environmental Science
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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