Effect of sintering temperature on the physiochemical properties, microstructure, and compressive strength of a bioceramic root canal sealer reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium carbide

Inaam Baghdadi*, Belal J. AbuTarboush, Ashraf Zaazou, Hasan Skienhe, Mutlu Özcan, Mirvat Zakhour, Ziad Salameh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: Bioceramic root canal sealers like BioRoot RCS have received significant attention for use in endodontics. The addition of a nanophase material like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and titanium carbide (TC) to its matrix combined with pressureless sintering might have the potential for improved physiochemical, microstructure, and compressive strength properties. Method: ology: MWCNTs and TC nanomaterials were added at a percentage of 1 wt% to a definite weight of pristine BioRoot RCS. Two composites were prepared by ball milling followed by pressureless sintering in static nitrogen at temperatures 600 °C and 800 °C. The setting time, solubility, pH, compressive strength, and density were determined and compared to pristine BioRoot RCS. The microstructural properties of the composites were investigated by XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and SEM. Results: The final setting time before and after sintering at 600 °C of the composites was accelerated compared to Bioroot RCS (p = 0.016). The solubility of Bioroot/TC sintered at 600 °C was the lowest (p = 0.07) and its compressive strength was the highest among the sintered samples (p = 0.01). The incorporation of MWCNTs and TC had a significant increase in the compressive strength of Bioroot RCS (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The obtained results support the addition of nanomaterials to Bioroot RCS and the use of pressureless sintering.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104524
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Compressive strength
  • FTIR
  • Nanomaterials
  • Root canal sealer
  • Sintering
  • XRD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials

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