Development of the SMART™ Project Planning framework

Francis Hartman*, Rafi Ashrafi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents work on development and testing of the SMART™ Project Planning framework. It is based on research into causes of both project failure and success. An empirical study of what industry practitioners think is important for effective project planning formed the basis of the study. Using this study, and other resources, a planning approach was developed that was designed to be holistic, integrated and risk sensitive. Field tests of the approach on live projects followed. The framework presents a unified approach to project planning, integrating both hard and soft aspects, enhancing current tools and techniques, and improving the project planning process by providing internal validation. Competence in project planning is reinforced as a cornerstone to effectively managing and leading projects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-510
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Project Management
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004


  • Competence
  • Managing and leading
  • Managing projects
  • Processes
  • Project planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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