Determination of pesticide and antibiotic residues in muscles of Sudanese camel (Camelus dromedarius)

A. Ibrahim Ghada, A. Nour Ikhlas, Al Maqbali Rabea, Isam T. Kadim*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


An effective analytical procedure was used for determination of organochlorine pesticides (Endrin, Aldrin, DDT, Endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor) and antibiotics (Tetracycline, Sulfonamides, Gentamycin and Cephalexin) in 12 Sudanese dromedary camel muscles. Forty-eight muscle samples from two age groups: group 1 (3-4 year old) and group 2 (6-7 year old) were collected. Meat samples from four muscles, i.e. longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) were extracted with acetonitrile and purified with acetonitrilesaturated n-hexane for removing impurities. After evaporation to dryness, the residue was passed through a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge for sample cleanup prior to Gas Chromatography coupled with various detectors such as Mass Spectrometer or electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) was also used to quantify of chemical concentrations in camel muscles. Pesticides residues in all camel muscles were below the Maximum Residual Limit (MRL). A Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) method was used to determine the residual of veterinary drugs and the results were confirmed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMSMS). With the exception of tetracycline, no antibiotic residues were detected in camel muscles. Tetracycline residues in some muscles was significantly higher than the MRL. Meat sample from group 1 had significantly (P<0.05) lower tetracycline residues than group 2 in LT (32.13 vs. 36.75 ppm), BF (34.35 vs. 36.94), ST (29.07 vs. 35.83) and SM (28.42 vs. 35.92). This study confirmed that Sudanese camel meat is free from organochlorine residues but tetracycline residues were accumulated in both age groups. Following medication treatment, a withdrawal period of two weeks should be practiced to avoid any hazard for human health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-169
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Camel Practice and Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018


  • Antibiotics
  • Muscles
  • Organochlorine pesticides
  • Residues
  • Sudanese camel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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