Demographic and Metacognitive Variations among Female University Students in the Arabian Gulf

Yasser A. Al-Hilawani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the presence of significant associations among demographics (i.e., monthly income and the number of family members) and metacognition (i.e., understanding pictures representing real-life situations and objects) between two groups (N = 112) of female university students with and without niqab (i.e., only the eyes were visible). It also explored if there were significant differences between the two groups in metacognition. Participants responded to a computerized metacognitive instrument. Correlation results revealed that the females who wore niqab were significantly and more likely to have more family members and less income when compared with the females without niqab. ANOVA analysis showed no significant differences between the students with and without niqab on the metacognitive test, in reaction time (i.e.,duration in seconds), and on the metacognitive test scores divided by the mean of the reaction times. Implications and limitations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-206
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Underrepresented and Minority Progress
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • demographics
  • females
  • metacognition
  • niqab
  • university students

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • General Psychology
  • Education
  • Philosophy
  • Cultural Studies

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