Copper slag as sand replacement for high performance concrete

Khalifa S. Al-Jabri*, Makoto Hisada, Salem K. Al-Oraimi, Abdullah H. Al-Saidy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

288 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on an experimental program to investigate the effect of using copper slag as a replacement of sand on the properties of high performance concrete (HPC). Eight concrete mixtures were prepared with different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0% (for the control mix) to 100%. Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and durability. The results indicate that there is a slight increase in the HPC density of nearly 5% with the increase of copper slag content, whereas the workability increased rapidly with increases in copper slag percentage. Addition of up to 50% of copper slag as sand replacement yielded comparable strength with that of the control mix. However, further additions of copper slag caused reduction in the strength due to an increase of the free water content in the mix. Mixes with 80% and 100% copper slag replacement gave the lowest compressive strength value of approximately 80 MPa, which is almost 16% lower than the strength of the control mix. The results also demonstrated that the surface water absorption decreased as copper slag quantity increases up to 40% replacement; beyond that level of replacement, the absorption rate increases rapidly. Therefore, it is recommended that 40 wt% of copper slag can used as replacement of sand in order to obtain HPC with good strength and durability properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-488
Number of pages6
JournalCement and Concrete Composites
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009


  • Copper slag
  • Durability
  • High performance concrete
  • Industrial by-products
  • Strength
  • Waste material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Copper slag as sand replacement for high performance concrete'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this