Consensus on diagnosis and management of Hereditary Angioedema in the Middle East: A Delphi initiative

Marcus Maurer*, Mohamed Abuzakouk, Mona Al-Ahmad, Waleed Al-Herz, Hassan Alrayes, Salem Al-Tamemi, Rand Arnaout, Hend Binghadeer, Ravi Gutta, Carla Irani, Hassan Mobayed, Iman Nasr, Hiba Shendi, Fares Zaitoun

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a potentially life-threatening genetic disorder due to C1 inhibitor deficiency in most cases, is characterized by sudden and/or recurrent attacks of angioedema (subcutaneous/submucosal swellings). The global World Allergy Organization (WAO)/European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) International guideline for HAE management is comprehensive, but the implementation of this guideline may require regional adaptation considering the diversity in disease awareness, type of medical care systems, and access to diagnostics and treatment. The aim of this Delphi initiative was to build on the global guideline and provide regional adaptation to address the concerns and specific needs in the Middle East. Methods: The Consensus panel comprised 13 experts from the Middle East (3 from the United Arab Emirates, 3 from Saudi Arabia, 2 from Lebanon, 2 from Kuwait, 2 from Oman and 1 from Qatar) who have more than 2 decades of experience in allergy and immunology and are actively involved in managing HAE patients. The process that was carried out to reach the consensus recommendation included: 1.) A systematic literature review for articles related to HAE management using Ovid MEDLINE. 2.) The development of a questionnaire by an internationally acclaimed expert, with 10 questions specific to HAE management in the Middle East. 3.) Experts received the questionnaire via email individually and their answers were recorded (email/interview). 4.) A virtual consensus meeting was organized to discuss the questionnaire, make amends if needed, vote, and achieve consensus. Results: The questionnaire comprised 10 questions, each with 2 or more statements/recommendations on which the regional experts voted. A consensus was reached based on a 70% agreement between the participants. The key highlights include: 1) HAE experts in the Middle East emphasized the importance of a positive family history for arriving at a diagnosis of HAE. 2) The number of episodes per month or per 6-month period and severity should be used, together with other markers, to determine the need for prophylaxis. 3) Disease status should be monitored by periodic visits and the use of patient-reported outcome measures such as the angioedema activity score and the angioedema control test. 4) Attenuated androgens and tranexamic acid may be considered for long-term prophylaxis, if lanadelumab, C1-Inhibitor or berotralstat are not available. Conclusion: This consensus recommendation may help to educate healthcare practitioners in the Middle East and unify their approach to the diagnosis and management of HAE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100729
Pages (from-to)100729
JournalWorld Allergy Organization Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2023


  • Delphi consensus
  • Hereditary angioedema
  • Middle east

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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