Compartment 1 acidosis associated with hemorrhagic diathesis causing mortalities among racing camels in Oman

Mahmoud S. El-Neweshy*, Julanda H. Al Mawly, Nadia Al Khaldi, Haytham Ali, Mohie A.M. Haridy, Abdulrahman A. Alkheraif, Hossam G. Tohamy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Camels are adapted to digestion of dry rough forages for their nutrition, and sudden change to highly digestible feed during the racing season causes digestive disorders. The current study investigated the cause of death among racing dromedary camels within 3–7 days following a sudden onset of fever ≈ 41 °C, colic with tarry feces, and enlarged superficial lymph nodes. Marked leukopenia, low RBC count and thrombocytopenia, deranged liver and renal function tests, and prolonged coagulation profiles were reported. Compartment 1 fluid revealed a pH of 4.3–5.2 with absence or few ciliated protozoa and Gram-positive microbial flora. Widespread petechial to ecchymotic hemorrhages were observed in various organs including the gastrointestinal tract (compartment 3 and colon), lungs, and heart. Fibrin thrombi in arterioles, capillaries, venules, and medium-sized veins were observed especially in the pulmonary interstitium, submucosa of the large intestine (ascending colon), deep dermis, and renal cortex. Furthermore, widespread hemorrhages and necrosis were constant histopathological lesions in parenchymatous organs. Based on clinical signs, hematology, blood biochemistry, and gross and microscopical findings, the cases were diagnosed as compartment 1 acidosis associated with hemorrhagic diathesis and endotoxicosis. Finally, compartment 1 acidosis associated with hemorrhagic diathesis is a serious fatal disease on the Arabian Peninsula in racing dromedaries causing multi-organ dysfunction and coagulopathy and disseminated hemorrhages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number229
JournalTropical Animal Health and Production
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Acidosis
  • C1
  • Camel
  • Hemorrhagic diathesis
  • Histopathology
  • Mycosis
  • Racing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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