Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Eastern Sudan

R. A. Bayoumi*, H. A. Babiker, S. M. Ibrahim, H. W. Ghalib, B. O. Saeed, S. Khider, M. Elwasila, E. A. Karim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


In vivo testing of the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine was carried out in 61 falciparum malaria patients with acute symptoms, in Eastern Sudan. In 26 patients (42%), P. falciparum was resistant to chloroquine. Nine patients (15%) had RI resistance, seven (11%) had RII resistance while ten (16%) had RIII resistance. The persistance of parasitaemia and symptoms were highly correlated in patients with RIII responses. In 21 patients in vitro testing of chloroquine sensitivity was carried out simultaneously with the in vivo testing using the World Health Organization microtest. In vivo and in vitro testing were also highly correlated. Isolates from 12 patients with proven in vivo resistance, grew in vitro in the presence of chloroquine concentrations above 0.8 × 10-6 mol/1 blood. Resistant strains have either been spread by refugees across the borders from Ethiopia or have developed indigenously. Mounting drug pressure, mass movement of non-immune refugees and loss of immunity among local inhabitants, due to the drought, are in favour of development of an indigenous focus. Epidemics with intense transmission caused by heavy rains following the drought could have greatly enhanced the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-165
Number of pages9
JournalActa Tropica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • Chloroquine resistance
  • Malaria
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Sudan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases


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