Causes, effects, benefits, and remedies of change orders on public construction projects in Oman

Ali S. Alnuaimi, Ramzi A. Taha, Mohammed Al Mohsin, Ali S. Al-Harthi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

158 Citations (Scopus)


Change orders are usually issued to cover variations in scope of work, material quantities, design errors, and unit rate changes. This paper discusses variations in public construction projects in Oman by investigating causes of variations, studying their effects on the project, identifying the beneficial parties, and suggesting remedies to alleviate related problems. Tasks included an analysis of four actual case studies and conducting a field survey via a questionnaire. It was determined that the client's additional works and modifications to design were the most important factors causing change orders, followed by the nonavailability of construction manuals and procedures. The most important effects of change orders on the project were found to be the schedule delays, disputes, and cost overruns. The contractor was found to be the party most benefiting from the change orders followed by the consultant and then the client. A set of remedial actions were suggested and respondents viewed that the revision of registration of consulting offices would be the most important action followed by establishing standard documents for design procedures and building a national database about soil conditions and services.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-622
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Construction Engineering and Management
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Case studies
  • Change order
  • Change orders
  • Construction management
  • Cost overrun
  • Costs
  • Delay
  • Delay time
  • Oman
  • Project completion
  • Project management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Industrial relations
  • Strategy and Management


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