Assessment of non-conventional irrigation water in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production

Muhammad Mumtaz Khan*, Mansour Hamed Al-Haddabi, Muhammad Tahir Akram, Muhammad Azam Khan, Aitazaz A. Farooque*, Sajjad Ahmad Siddiqi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Climate change, urbanization and subsequent environmental changes are depleting freshwater resources around the globe. The reuse of domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewater is an alternative approach to freshwater that can be used for irrigation purposes. However, these wastewaters may contain hazardous and toxic elements, such as heavy metals that are hazardous for human health and the environment. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the concentration of macro, micro and heavy metals in cucumber irrigated with different resources (tap water, greywater, dairy water and wastewater). The results showed that the use of different irrigation resources has increased the level of macro (sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg)), microelements (zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn)), and heavy metals (copper (Cu), barium (Ba), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)) in cucumber leaves and fruits. However, their levels were in the range that is safe for human health and the environment was as recommended by FAO maximum values of trace elements (Zn, 2.0; Fe 1.0; Mn, 0.2; Cu, 0.2; Pb, 5.0, and Cd, 0.01 mgL−1). Based on observations, it was also revealed that among different irrigation resources, the use of dairy water in cucumber improved its agronomic attributes and maximum plant yield (1191.02 g), while the different irrigation resources showed a non-significant impact on fruit diameter. How-ever, total soluble solid contents (TSS) were more significant in cucumber fruits treated with wastewater (2.26 °brix) followed by dairy water (2.06 °brix), while the least TSS contents (1.57 °brix) were observed in cucumber plants treated with tap water. The significance of non-conventional irrigation water use in agriculture, particularly greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production, is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number257
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 27 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Climate change
  • Environment
  • Heavy metals
  • Human health
  • Resources
  • Wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Dive into the research topics of 'Assessment of non-conventional irrigation water in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) production'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this