Arboviruses pathogenic for domestic and wild animals

Zdenek Hubálek*, Ivo Rudolf, Norbert Nowotny

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this chapter is to provide an updated and concise systematic review on taxonomy, history, arthropod vectors, vertebrate hosts, animal disease, and geographic distribution of all arboviruses known to date to cause disease in homeotherm (endotherm) vertebrates, except those affecting exclusively man. Fifty arboviruses pathogenic for animals have been documented worldwide, belonging to seven families: Togaviridae (mosquito-borne Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis viruses; Sindbis, Middelburg, Getah, and Semliki Forest viruses), Flaviviridae (mosquito-borne yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu and Wesselsbron viruses; tick-borne encephalitis, louping ill, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Tyuleniy viruses), Bunyaviridae (tick-borne Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado, and Bhanja viruses; mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever, La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, and Cache Valley viruses; biting midges-borne Main Drain, Akabane, Aino, Shuni, and Schmallenberg viruses), Reoviridae (biting midges-borne African horse sickness, Kasba, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki, equine encephalosis, Peruvian horse sickness, and Yunnan viruses), Rhabdoviridae (sandfly/mosquito-borne bovine ephemeral fever, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, vesicular stomatitis-Alagoas, and Coccal viruses), Orthomyxoviridae (tick-borne Thogoto virus), and Asfarviridae (tick-borne African swine fever virus). They are transmitted to animals by five groups of hematophagous arthropods of the subphyllum Chelicerata (order Acarina, families Ixodidae and Argasidae-ticks) or members of the class Insecta: mosquitoes (family Culicidae); biting midges (family Ceratopogonidae); sandflies (subfamily Phlebotominae); and cimicid bugs (family Cimicidae). Arboviral diseases in endotherm animals may therefore be classified as: tick-borne (louping ill and tick-borne encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Tyuleniy fever, Nairobi sheep disease, Soldado fever, Bhanja fever, Thogoto fever, African swine fever), mosquito-borne (Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitides, Highlands J disease, Getah disease, Semliki Forest disease, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, Usutu disease, Israel turkey meningoencephalitis, Tembusu disease/duck egg-drop syndrome, Wesselsbron disease, La Crosse encephalitis, Snowshoe hare encephalitis, Cache Valley disease, Main Drain disease, Rift Valley fever, Peruvian horse sickness, Yunnan disease), sandfly-borne (vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, New Jersey, and Alagoas, Cocal disease), midge-borne (Akabane disease, Aino disease, Schmallenberg disease, Shuni disease, African horse sickness, Kasba disease, bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer, Ibaraki disease, equine encephalosis, bovine ephemeral fever, Kotonkan disease), and cimicid-borne (Buggy Creek disease). Animals infected with these arboviruses regularly develop a febrile disease accompanied by various nonspecific symptoms; however, additional severe syndromes may occur: neurological diseases (meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis); hemorrhagic symptoms; abortions and congenital disorders; or vesicular stomatitis. Certain arboviral diseases cause significant economic losses in domestic animals-for example, Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalitides, West Nile encephalitis, Nairobi sheep disease, Rift Valley fever, Akabane fever, Schmallenberg disease (emerged recently in Europe), African horse sickness, bluetongue, vesicular stomatitis, and African swine fever; all of these (except for Akabane and Schmallenberg diseases) are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE, 2012).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-275
Number of pages75
JournalAdvances in Virus Research
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • (Re-)emerging
  • Abortions
  • African horse sickness
  • African swine fever
  • Aino
  • Akabane
  • Animals
  • Arboviral disease
  • Arboviruses
  • Argasidae
  • Asfarviridae
  • Bhanja
  • Biting midges
  • Bluetongue
  • Bovine ephemeral fever
  • Bunyaviridae
  • Cache Valley
  • Ceratopogonidae
  • Cimicid bugs
  • Cimicidae
  • Coccal
  • Congenital disorders
  • Culicidae
  • Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalilitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Encephalomyelitis
  • Epizootic hemorrhagic disease
  • Equine encephalosis
  • Flaviviridae
  • Getah
  • Hematophagous arthropods
  • Hemorrhagic symptoms
  • Ibaraki
  • Israel turkey meningoencephalitis
  • Ixodidae
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Kasba
  • Kyasanur Forest disease
  • La Crosse
  • Louping ill
  • Main Drain
  • Meningitis
  • Middelburg
  • Mosquitoes
  • Murray Valley encephalitis
  • Nairobi sheep disease
  • Neurological diseases
  • Omsk hemorrhagic fever
  • Orthomyxoviridae
  • Peruvian horse sickness
  • Phlebotominae
  • Reoviridae
  • Rhabdoviridae
  • Rift Valley fever
  • Sandflies
  • Schmallenberg
  • Semliki Forest
  • Shuni
  • Sindbis
  • Snowshoe hare
  • Soldado
  • Taxonomy
  • Tembusu
  • Thogoto
  • Tick-borne encephalitis
  • Ticks
  • Togaviridae
  • Tyuleniy
  • Usutu
  • Vectors
  • Vesicular stomatitis
  • Wesselsbron
  • West Nile
  • Yellow fever
  • Yunnan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • General Medicine


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