An overview of alternative raw materials used in cement and clinker manufacturing

Sabah Ahmed Abdul-Wahab*, Hilal Al-Dhamri, Ganesh Ram, Vishnu P. Chatterjee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Material generated during industrial activities that do not have further use in the production process are often categorised as refused industrial byproducts. This paper briefly discusses the utilisation of such refused byproducts in the cement manufacturing process and evaluates their use at different stages of the cement manufacturing process. The evaluation was based on the byproducts’ physicochemical properties without affecting the quality of the final cement product. Dealing with hazards caused by byproduct mismanagement and storage is a tremendous task; however, such production continues to rise. The worldwide diminishment of raw materials offers ample opportunities to replace these materials with refused byproducts. Many refused byproducts remain unexplored even though they might be used in cement production and to develop newer types of cement. Using refused byproducts as alternatives to more traditionally used raw materials will help maintain the world’s ecological balance while contributing to society’s development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-760
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Refused industrial by-product
  • alternative raw materials
  • clinker phase
  • de-carbonation
  • environmental hazard
  • mineralogy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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