Ameliorative effect of gum acacia on hookah smoke-induced testicular impairment in mice

Badreldin H. Ali, Suhail Al-Salam, Khalid A. Al Balushi, Mohammed A l Za'abi, Sirin A. Adham, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Priyadarsini Manoj, Abderrahim Nemmar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated some reproductive actions of hookah smoke (HS) exposure (30 min/day, for 30 days) in male mice, and the possible mitigative effect of the prebiotic agent gum acacia (GA) thereon. Control mice were air-exposed (AE). Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, the levels of some plasma reproductive hormones, biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress and testicular histopathology were assessed. The urinary level of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, was also measured. HS exposure induced significant decreases in testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and androgen binding protein, as well as glutathione reductase activity and levels of nitrite and total nitrite. Plasma inhibin B, alkaline phosphatase, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation, 8-oxo-2’-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome C were significantly increased following HS exposure. In testicular homogenate, nuclear factor-κB (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were all significantly elevated, and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) significantly decreased. Histopathologically, there was slight impairment and disorganization of spermatogenesis. Urinary cotinine concentration was elevated significantly in the HS-exposed group compared with the air-exposed group. GA co-administration mitigated the adverse actions of HS measured. In conclusion, daily exposure to HS at the above dose induced adverse actions on the reproductive system of male mice. GA co-administration significantly mitigated these effects by reducing the inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, via a mechanism involving Nrf2, and reduction of StAR expression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number762
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 13 2020


  • Gum Arabic
  • Hookah smoke
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Reproductive hormones
  • StAR
  • Testes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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