Access to Care and Therapy for Kawasaki Disease in the Arab Countries: A Kawasaki Disease Arab Initiative (Kawarabi) Multicenter Survey

Raed Alzyoud, Nermeen El-Kholy, Yousra Arab, Nadine Choueiter, Ashraf S. Harahsheh, Adnan Salem Aselan, Alyaa Kotby, Asma Bouaziz, Aso F. Salih, Awatif Abushhaiwia, Fahad Alahmadi, Hala M. Agha, Hala M. Elmarsafawy, Hanifa Alrabte, Hesham Al-Saloos, Houda Boudiaf, Issa Hijazi, Kenza Bouayed, Khalfan Salim Al Senaidi, Lamia BoughammouraMaryam Jalal, Mohamed S. Ladj, Mohammed E. Abu-Shukair, Mona M. ElGanzoury, Nacera Hammadouche, Nora Elsamman, Pierre Mouawad, Rachida Boukari, Nassiba Benalikhoudja, Salima Jdour, Sima Y. Abu Al-Saoud, Soued Nabila Touri, Thouraya Kammoun, Zohra Fitouri, Nagib Dahdah*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Kawasaki Disease (KD) is still the most common acquired heart disease in children below the age of five years; it has been well described in the developed world; however, data from the Arab world are limited to case reports or single-center case series. In an effort of optimizing KD research in the Arab world, a group of physicians and researchers established the KD Arab Initiative (Kawarabi) in 2021, and published the first survey, which showed disparities in the availability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG); this had prompted Kawarabi to assess the access to care and therapy of KD patients in Arab countries. A 32 structured questions survey was conducted in thirteen Arab countries and addressed KD patients’ access to healthcare in urban and rural settings. The survey results showed that access to care was uniform across large, mid-size cities and rural areas in 7/13 (54%) countries, while in 6/13 (46%) countries, it was in favor of large and mid-size cities over rural areas. The quality of medical services received by children with KD in large cities was rated as excellent in 6/13 or good in 7/13 countries compared to fair in 4/13 or poor in 4/13 countries in rural areas. Availability of IVIG was limited (23%) in mid-size cities and almost impossible (23%) in rural areas. The KD patients in mid-size cities and rural areas have limited access to standard healthcare in the Arab world. This survey laid the foundation for future Kawarabi endeavors to improve the care of children with KD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1277-1284
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Arab
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulins
  • Kawasaki Disease
  • Treatment
  • Humans
  • Child, Preschool
  • Arabs
  • Infant
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Heart Diseases
  • Child
  • Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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