A spectroscopic study of the inclusion of azulene by β- And γ-cyclodextrins

Osama K. Abou-Zied*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


The inclusion of azulene (AZ) inside the cavities of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was studied using absorption, fluorescence and induced-circular dichroism spectroscopy. The inclusion of AZ into the cavity of β-CD has a stoichiometry of 1:1, whereas that of AZ/γ-CD complex is 1:2. The equilibrium constants for the formation of the two complexes were calculated to be 780 ± 150 M-1 for AZ:β-CD and (4.5 ± 0.86) × 105 M-2 for AZ:(γ-CD)2. The latter is due to a stepwise equilibrium mechanism in which a 1:1 complex is formed with a binding constant of 775 M -1, followed by the formation of a 1:2 complex with a binding constant of 580 M-1. The difference between the two binding constant values is slight, indicating an almost equal contribution from each of the γ-CD molecules to the overall binding in AZ:(γ-CD)2. From the induced-circular dichroism spectra, the inclusion of AZ was found to be axial in AZ:β-CD and nearly axial in AZ:(γ-CD)2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-251
Number of pages7
JournalSpectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005


  • Absorption
  • Azulene
  • Binding constant
  • Circular dichroism
  • Cyclodextrin
  • Fluorescence
  • Stoichiometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Spectroscopy


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