Biodiesel (methyl esters) has been produced using numerous catalysts to enhance its quality and related productivity. Generally, the raw materials for biodiesel production and its catalysts significantly impact the produced biodiesel’s quality. In addition, the heterogeneous catalysts are promising as catalysts in the transesterification for biodiesel production and can be used continuously during this production. In particular, these catalysts are essential for green biodiesel production because of their high activity, thermal stability, and reusability. Hence, several homogeneous and heterogeneous (acidic and alkaline) catalysts for biodiesel production, particularly the naturally derived heterogeneous catalysts, are reviewed in this article. Further, the different heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production have been studied extensively as replacements for the respective homogeneous catalyst. Specifically, this replacement is aimed at the simultaneous esterification and transesterification of the nonedible and low-cost biomasses under moderate conditions producing biodiesel. Moreover, this study analyzes biodiesel’s impact and long-term performance in various applications. Finally, it also reports the advancements in biodiesel production in terms of the catalysts used in it and its processes to aid further developments in biodiesel production.
- engine performance
- methyl esters
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Process Chemistry and Technology