A Maximum Power Point Tracker Using the Bald Eagle Search Technique for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Waleed Al Abri, Rashid Al Abri*, Hassan Yousef, Amer Al-Hinai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) methods work to maximize the output power of a PV system under changes in meteorological conditions. The performance of these methods depends on the complexity of the algorithm and the number of used variable inputs for obtaining the MPP value. Moreover, they oscillate around the MPP in steady-state operations, causing a waste of power and power loss. Moreover, they do not work perfectly for a PV system running under partial shading conditions. Therefore, this paper proposes modifications to the global maximum power point bald eagle search-based (GMPP BES) method so that it runs as an MPPT as well. The modifications enable the GMPP BES method to detect minor changes in insolation and temperature by observing the changes in the PV array output voltage and, accordingly, trigger the search for the suitable MPP voltage. An experimental setup using a real-time digital simulator (RTDS) was utilized to evaluate the modified GMPP BES-based method under real changes in insolation and ambient temperature. The RTDS simulations confirm the capability of the modified method to accurately and efficiently locate the MPP values. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than the perturb and observe (PO) method concerning its ability to respond to changes in insolation and ambient temperature and its ability to arrive at correct MPP values with nearly zero oscillation around the maximum power point. Thus, with these advantages, the proposed method can be considered a practical solution for solar farms that have to harvest large amounts of energy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9185
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 4 2022


  • PV systems
  • bald eagle search technique
  • global maximum power point tracking
  • maximum power point tracking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Optimization
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

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