A concealed observational study of infection control and safe injection practices in Jordanian governmental hospitals

Omar M. AL-Rawajfah*, Ahmad Tubaishat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background The recognized international organizations on infection prevention recommend using an observational method as the gold standard procedure for assessing health care professional's compliance with standard infection control practices. However, observational studies are rarely used in Jordanian infection control studies. This study aimed to evaluate injection practices among nurses working in Jordanian governmental hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional concealed observational design is used for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of nurses working in governmental hospitals in Jordan. Participants were unaware of the time and observer during the observation episode. Results A total of 384 nurses from 9 different hospitals participated in the study. A total of 835 injections events were observed, of which 73.9% were performed without handwashing, 64.5% without gloving, and 27.5% were followed by needle recapping. Handwashing rate was the lowest (18.9%) when injections were performed by beginner nurses. Subcutaneous injections were associated with the lowest rate (26.7%) of postinjection handwashing compared with other routes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for focused and effective infection control educational programs in Jordanian hospitals. Future studies should consider exploring the whole infection control practices related to waste disposal and the roles of the infection control nurse in this process in Jordanian hospitals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1127-1132
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Infection Control
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Compliance with infection control
  • Concealed observational
  • Injection practices
  • Safe injection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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