Seepage through an aquifer, the hydraulic conductivity of which varies vertically, is studied using the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation (Girinskii’s potential) and numerically by FDM-MODFLOW and FEM-HYDRUS-2D. In urban water hydrology, the effect of compaction of the top stratum of an aquifer on the flow rate and the position of the water table (characterized by an integral quantity of the saturated/dry area) is analysed. The area of the saturated zone is evaluated as a function of the conductivity ratio of the two strata, and their thicknesses. Conductivity varying linearly and exponentially is also analytically studied. Boundary-value problems are solved for a linear (nonlinear) ordinary differential equation if the evaporation rate is constant (decreasing exponentially with depth). The MODFLOW and HYDRUS-2D simulations give consistent fields of the piezometric head, pressure head, and Darcian velocity, as well as the water table position, which may have a global minimum (watershed).
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