Actinomycosis has been known to involve virtually every anatomic site in the body. Although actinomycosis has been identified in resected tonsils, its possible role in adeno-tonsillar disease has received little attention. A clinicopathological study of 302 patients who had adeno-tonsillar surgery is presented. Tonsillar actinomycosis was present in 86 (28.5%) patients. The statistical analysis revealed a significant association (P<0.0001) of actinomycosis and tonsillar hypertrophy (56.8%) compared to only 10.3% in the recurrent tonsillitis group. A statistically significant association (P<0.0001) of tonsillar actinomycosis and sickle cell anaemia, beta thalassaemia, bronchial asthma and beta haemolytic streptococcal infections was also seen. This data supports a predisposition of the above conditions to tonsillar actinomycosis and adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy and a possible etiopathologic role of this organism in adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy and disease. Although the clinical association of actinomycosis and tonsillar hypertrophy and beta haemolytic streptococcal infection has been described before the association of actinomycosis with sickle cell anaemia, beta thalassaemia and bronchial asthma is being observed for the first time in literature.
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