The thoracic manifestations of AIDS have undergone a gradual metamorphosis, partly due to more awareness about the disease leading to earlier diagnoses and partly due to the fact that research has produced more effective prophylaxis as well as treatment for these patients. Many patients now demonstrate partial or complete clinical response which prolongs the length and quality of life of individuals positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+). Also, with the large number of infected individuals coming to medical attention, and the years of experience in diagnosing and treating these AIDS patients, we now recognize not only the usual but also less usual manifestations of thoracic illnesses in AIDS, including infections, non-infectious diseases such as HIV associated Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia and the neoplasms associated with AIDS. A section will be devoted to HIV infection in children. We will finish the article with a discussion of the current role of Nuclear Medicine in the diagnosis of HIV associated thoracic diseases. These topics are the subject of this article.
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