This work aimed to investigate whether treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin would affect adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in non-diabetic rats and rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups, and given either normal feed, or feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w, for five weeks) to induce CKD. Some of these groups were also simultaneously treated orally with metformin (200 mg/kg/day). Rats given adenine showed the typical signs of CKD that included detrimental changes in several physiological and traditional and novel biochemical biomarkers in plasma urine and kidney homogenates such as albumin/creatinine ratio, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, 8-isoprostane, adiponectin, cystatin C, as well as plasma urea, creatinine, uric acid, indoxyl sulfate, calcium, and phosphorus. Several indices of inflammation and oxidative stress, and renal nuclear factor-κB and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 levels were also measured. Histopathologically, adenine caused renal tubular necrosis and fibrosis. The activation of the intra-cellular mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway was inhibited in the groups that received metformin and STZ together, with or without adenine induced-CKD. Induction of diabetes worsened most of the actions induced by adenine. Metformin significantly ameliorated the renal actions induced by adenine and STZ when these were given singly, and more so when given together. The results suggest that metformin can be a useful drug in attenuating the progression of CKD in both diabetic and non-diabetic rats.
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