This paper presents three different methods for modeling the transient response of electrical machines. State-space approach, Laplace transformation technique, and realization of a new, wide-frequency range equivalent circuit of the machine terminal impedance are applied to obtain the transient response to any waveform. The introduced methods are based on the frequency response of the machine which is often seen as a black box. Both laboratory- and large-scale machines are used to investigate the effect of a variety of impulse waveforms on the transient response of the other phases and to get the voltage distribution along the winding of each phase. A frequency response test for the machine is applied to get the resonance frequencies and the rational forms for both the voltage gains and terminal impedance. Excellent agreement (error is within 3 %) is found between the three methods and the experimental results for different types and ratings of electrical machines under different impulse waveforms.
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