Purpose: To describe the effect of seasonal variations on sleep patterns in a hot climate Arab region. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that included healthy Omani subjects of both genders between ages 18 and 59 years. Data for sleep pattern identification in summer and winter were collected from participants using an actigraphy wristband. Results: Among 321 participants, in summer seasons, a polyphasic sleep pattern (40%) prevailed over other sleep patterns (P < 0.001). While in the winter season, monophasic sleep (31%) was the dominant pattern (P < 0.001). Subjects slept longer during the winter seasons with total hours of sleep during the day 48 min longer than in the summer, though the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), while siesta duration in the summer was significantly longer (13 min, P < 0.01). In summer, the sleep quality was good (PSQI ≤ 5); however, it was poor (PSQI > 5) in winter (P < 0.05). Night sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and sleep latency were not statistically different between the summer and winter seasons. Conclusion: Sleep patterns may be influenced by seasonal changes. A polyphasic sleep pattern prevailed in summer while a monophasic pattern was the predominant sleep pattern in winter. In summer, the sleep quality was good and the siesta duration was longer compared to the winter.
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