We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine HIV virologic failure and its associated factors among Omani people living with HIV who are on ART for > 6 months. Patients (n = 1427) were identified from a central national HIV surveillance dataset. Two-thirds (67%) of patients were male, and the median age was 39 years (IQR, 32-48 years). Out of 1427 patients, 14.4% had virologic failure (HIV viral load [VL] ≥ 200 copies/ml). The multivariate analysis showed that patients aged 25-49 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.01-3.08) were significantly more likely to fail treatment, compared to those aged ≥ 50 years. Besides, having “Other” HIV risk factor (compared to heterosexuals, aOR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.02-3.24) and receiving HIV care outside the capital Muscat (compared to those cared for in Muscat, aOR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.11-2.7) were independently associated with virologic failure. HIV viral suppression (85.6%) in Oman is encouraging; however, further strategies, mainly targeting patients who are young (<50 years), those not disclosing their HIV risk factor and those attending HIV treatment centres outside Muscat, are required to enhance HIV treatment outcome in Oman.
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