Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 74% of global deaths and contributed to significant disabilities, worsening health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In NCDs, poor medication adherence, social support, patient-physician relationship, and health literacy decrease HRQoL. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of literature examining the predictors of HRQoL among patients with different types of NCDs. Aims: This study aimed to examine the predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), including health literacy, social support, patient-physician relationship, and medication adherence, among patients with NCDs. Methods: This national cross-sectional study used a correlational design and included 800 Omani participants with six NCDs. Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure HRQoL, health literacy, patient-physician relationship, social support, and medication adherence. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine predictors of HRQoL. Results: Participants' mean age was 56 years (SD = 15.60). The results revealed that more medication adherence was linked to better physical and role functioning (β = 0.08, p = .017, β = 0.07, p = .021, respectively) and mental health (β = 0.19, p = .000). Social support was independent predictor of physical (β = 0.19, p = .000), social (β = 0.09, p = .009), role (β = 0.07, p = .029) and mental (β = 0.30, p = .000) functioning. Patients with good health literacy had better social (β = 0.51, p = .001) and role (β = 0.10, p = .011) functioning. Conclusion: This study holds implications for future efforts to implement interventions improving HRQoL. The study suggested that health literacy, social support and medication adherence are significant predictors, positively influencing physical functioning, social functioning, role functioning, and mental health dimensions of HRQoL among patients with NCDs.
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