Objectives: We sought to study the occurrence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in adult Omani patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in patients diagnosed with PVT, which was confirmed by radiological imaging, from two tertiary hospitals over a 10-year period. Results: Amongst the 39 patients enrolled in the study, 15 (38.4%) had cirrhosis of the liver, and 24 (61.5%) were non-cirrhotic. In the non-cirrhotic PVT patients, 15 (62.5%) had acute PVT, whereas nine (37.5%) had chronic PVT. PVT was more common in males than females, (25 (64.1%) vs. 14 (35.8%), respectively, p = 0.020). The three most common clinical symptoms were abdominal pain (n = 25, 64.1%) followed by nausea (n = 12, 30.7%) and fever (n = 8, 20.5%) patients. Causative risk factors included prothrombotic states (17.9–28.2%) and local factors (20.5%) such as cholecystitis, cholangitis, and liver abscess. Complications were found in 23.0% of patients with PVT, namely variceal bleeding in seven patients (17.9%) patients and bowel ischemia in two patients (5.1%). Management with sclerotherapy was performed in all patients with variceal bleeding. Thrombectomy was done for one patient complicated with intestinal ischemia, but as it failed, he was treated with warfarin anticoagulation. Conclusions: This is the first study reflecting a real-life practice in PVT with possibly underlying inherited and acquired prothrombotic conditions as well as complications due to local and malignant conditions from Oman. We studied the prevalence, clinical presentation, underlying possible etiological factors, treatment, and outcomes. Since causative factors were found in 36 patients (92.3%), etiological screening seems worthwhile in every case with PVT, but thrombophilia screening may not be cost-effective.
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