Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial ubiquitous compound, frequently used to produce synthetic polymers and epoxy resins. BPA is a well-recognized endocrine disruptor and xenoestrogen compound. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies suggests that perinatal BPA exposure (gestation and/or lactation) increases the risk of developing various diseases, including the cardiovascular system. Developmental programming refers to environmental insults during the critical window of development that affect the structure and physiology of body systems, causing permanent changes in later stages. BPA influences the developmental programming of non-communicable diseases in the offspring. In the present review, we discuss the developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases related to perinatal exposure to BPA, supported by epidemiological and experimental evidence from published literature. The majority of the reported studies found a positive association between perinatal BPA exposure and adverse cardiovascular repercussions in the fetal, neonatal, and adulthood stages. The possible underlying mechanisms include epigenetic modifications of genes involved in cardiac muscle development, autonomic tone, collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix, cardiac remodeling and calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Epigenetics can modify the outcome of any disease. Hence, in the present review, we also discuss the role of epigenetics in preventing cardiovascular diseases following perinatal exposure to BPA. We also highlight how future treatment and drug delivery related to cardiovascular involvement could be based on epigenetic markers.
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