Climate change has increased the severity and frequency of droughts over the last decades. To alleviate the adverse impacts of droughts, an effective planning and management framework requires high-resolution spatiotemporal data. TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) dataset provides sufficient accuracy with fine spatio-temporal resolution. However, it only covers a short temporal span, which limits its applicability for drought studies. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and accurate temporal extension of TMPA using four artificial intelligence (AI)-based models. To improve AI-based model precipitation estimations, fusion techniques including Orness, Orlike, and genetic algorithm (GA)-based weighting methods were employed. Results show that fusion approaches provide more accurate estimates of precipitation. Different timescales of n-SPI time series and drought spatial maps were prepared to visually evaluate the performance of long-term TMPA (LT-TMPA) alongside statistical error indices. The results confirm that this dataset is effective for meteorological drought monitoring over southern Iran. Finally, drought risk assessment was carried out to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of droughts through severity-duration-frequency (SDF) contour maps. In contrast to the traditional SDF curves, SDF contour maps provide a superior understanding of drought for policymakers since they preserve spatial information.
ASJC Scopus subject areas