The incidence of urologic cancers, including kidney, upper tract urothelial, and bladder malignancies, is increasing globally, with a high percentage of cases showing metastasis upon diagnosis and low five-year survival rates. MicroRNA (miRNA), a small non-coding RNA, was found to regulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in several tumors, including cancers of the urinary system. In the current review, we comprehensively discuss the recently reported up-or down-regulated miRNAs as well as their possible targets and regulated pathways involved in the development, progression, and metastasis of urinary tract cancers. These miRNAs represent potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers that may help in efficient and early diagnosis in addition to better treatment outcomes.
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