The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has risen globally. MetS includes a combination of features, i.e. blood glucose impairment, excess abdominal/body fat dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. Other than conventional treatment with drugs, the main preventive approaches include lifestyle changes, weight loss, diet control and adequate exercise also proves to be beneficial. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical regulatory roles in most biological and pathological processes. In the present review, we discuss various miRNAs which are related to MetS by targeting various organs, including the pancreas, liver, skeletal muscles and adipose tissues. These miRNAs have the effect on insulin production and secretion (miR-9, miR-124a, miR-130a,b, miR152, miR-335, miR-375), insulin resistance (miR-29), adipogenesis (miR-143, miR148a) and lipid metabolism (miR-192). We also discuss the miRNAs as potential biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. This review may be beneficial for molecular biologists and clinicians dealing with MetS.
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