In this paper, a new load frequency control (LFC) for multi-area power systems is developed based on the direct-indirect adaptive fuzzy control technique. LFCs for each area are designed based on availability of frequency deviation of each area and tie-line power deviation between areas. The fuzzy logic system approximation capabilities are exploited to develop suitable adaptive control law and parameter update algorithms for unknown interconnected LFC areas. An H∞ tracking performance criterion is introduced to minimize the approximation errors and the external disturbance effects. The proposed controller guarantees stability of the overall closed-loop system. Simulation results for a real three-area power system prove the effectiveness of the proposed LFC and show its superiority over a classical PID controller and a type-2 fuzzy controller.
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