Objectives: To study and classify the immunophenotypic characteristics of Omani patients diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and to correlate the results with age and gender as well as biological factors (peripheral and bone marrow blast cells percentage). Methods: Fifty cases from both genders and of all ages who fulfilled the inclusion criteria with a diagnosis of T-ALL were included in the study. Correlation of T-ALL subtypes with age, gender, and initial bone marrow and peripheral blood blast cells percentage was assessed using ANOVA. Results: Among the 50 T-ALL patients analyzed, 44 were male and six were female giving a male-to-female ratio of 7:1 (p = 0.007). The average age of patients was 19.2 years with no significant differences in the three disease subtypes. No significant association was seen between the peripheral or bone marrow blast cell percentage and the differentiation stages of the neoplastic clone of T-ALL. All female patients were found to express an immature T-ALL phenotype. Conclusions: This study reports the subtypes of T-ALL in Oman for the first time. It is hoped that this will lead to a better understanding of the disease outcomes.
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