Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) embraces the frequently indistinguishable conditions, namely familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH), sporadic hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (SHLH) and virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS). The disease is very rare and invariably lethal. Evidence suggests that the disease may be due to an inherited defect in immunoregulation that predisposes to an uncontrolled proliferation of activated histiocytes in response to a stimulus such as viral infection. We report here a 3-day-old neonate with confirmed HLH who had a stormy course and a fatal outcome to the disease process, in spite of early chemotherapy. To our knowledge, we believe this is the youngest reported case of HLH from Middle East. No familial or infective cause could be attributed.
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